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GIS Concepts and ArcGIS Methods
2nd Edition for v9

ISBN 0-9679208-3-3
GIS Concepts and ArcGIS Methods, 2nd Edition for v9, combines the how and why into one complete reference. This book bridges the information gap between user manuals and textbooks by fusing ArcGIS v9 methods and techniques with a compilation of basic geographical concepts to benefit both beginners and experts. It is an ideal textbook for introductory GIS courses as it demonstrates how to display, query, edit, and analyze both feature and raster-based geographic data using ArcGIS, all within the broader context of fundamental GIS concepts.

Technically in-depth and easy to read, the book is organized by concepts from basic to advanced, making the ideas and techniques easier to comprehend. Numerous examples, step-by-step instructions, and references to the primary GIS and computer science literature can help you learn even more. Tips on how to transition from ArcView v3 to the current ArcGIS v9 software are provided. GIS Concepts and ArcGIS Methods is a complete cohesive reference designed to increase productivity for students as well as for professionals.

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Table of Contents

Download the Table of Contents as a PDF (244 K)

GIS CONCEPTS AND ARCGIS METHODS
2nd Edition, July 2005

David M. Theobald, Ph.D.
Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory
Colorado State University

GIS Concepts and ArcGIS Methods

Copyright
Copyright © 2005 by David M. Theobald. All rights reserved.

Trademarks
ArcGIS, ArcMap, ArcCatalog, ArcToolbox, ArcView, ArcInfo, Spatial Analyst, Shapefile, Image Analysis, 3D Analyst, and Avenue are registered trademarks of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.

Publisher
Conservation Planning Technologies, 1113 West Olive Street, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA. Phone: 970.980.1183.

For book inquiries, please visit the following website:
http://www.consplan.com

Published in the United States of America

ISBN 0-9679208-3-3 (paper)

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to GIS and ArcGIS 1

What is special about GIS? 1
GIS defined 2
Maps and more... 3
Spatial analysis 5

Evolution of interface design 8

Desktop ArcGIS 9
Overview 9
ArcMap basics 11
ArcCatalog basics 19
Geoprocessing 25
Extensions 27
Key changes in v9 28
Key changes in v8 29
File and path names in ArcGIS 32

CHAPTER 2 Data models and structures 35

Representing geographic features 35
Where, what, and when 36
Human cognition of geographic features 36

Feature data structures 38
Geometric data structure 38
Topological data structure 44
Network 50
Surface 53
Object-oriented data structure 54
Spatial index 59
Supported feature data structures 61

Field data structures 62

Non-spatial (attribute) data 63
Data types 64
Relating tables 66
Tables in ArcGIS 68
GRID attribute table 76

Importing spatial data 77
Importing feature data 78

CHAPTER 3 Coordinate systems, projections, and GPS 81

Location, location, location... 81

Scale 82
Scale in a digital world 84

Geographic coordinate systems 86
Spheroids and datums 87

The Global Positioning System (GPS) 88

Projected coordinate systems 91
Properties and characteristics 91
Projection types 92
Distortion patterns 95
Selecting a projection 96
Commonly used projections 96

Changing coordinate systems 102
Projection definition file 102
Permanent projection 104
Temporary, on the fly, projection 105

CHAPTER 4 Visualization of spatial data 107

Overview 107

Thematic mapping 110
Features map type 111
Categories map type 113
Quantities map type 115
Charts 129
Multiple attributes map type 130
Symbology 130
Styles 138

Landform maps 138

Labeling maps 141
Dynamic labels 142
Annotation 143

Graphs 143

Map layout 147
Templates 148

Exporting and printing 150
Creating interactive maps 153

CHAPTER 5 Querying a map 157

Overview 157
Selection method 157

Where is…? Where are...? 159
Find 159
Select by attributes (SQL) 160
Definition query 165

What is here? 166
Identify 166
Interactive selection 167

How big? 169

How far? 170

What features are near another feature? 171
Spatial relation types 172
Buffered selections 173
Examples of common selections 173
What is adjacent? 174

CHAPTER 6 Creating and editing feature data 177

Overview 177

Creating a new dataset 177
Creating a new dataset 178
Converting a dataset 181
Sub-setting a dataset 182

Topology revisited 183

Feature-oriented editing 186

Feature editing basics 188
Starting an edit session 188
Snapping environment 189

Common editing tasks 190
Adding new features 190
Splitting a feature 194
Deleting features 195
Modifying features 195
Removing an overlap 198
Removing a sliver polygon 198
Patching a gap 200
Integration 200
Changing feature order 202

Map topology 202
Topology rules 203
Cluster tolerance 207
Topological or shared editing 207

Geocoding 209
Geocoding services 211

Editing attribute data 212
Common problems with calculator expressions 214
Advanced calculator expressions 214

CHAPTER 7 Raster basics 223

Overview 223

Raster representation 223
GRID 225
Images 231

Raster symbology 234

Analysis environment 236
Analysis extent 237
Cell size 238

Raster-vector conversion 239
Vector to raster 240
Raster to vector 242
Image-GRID conversion 243

Local functions 243
Cell Statistics 244
Reclassification 246

Focal functions 248
Neighborhood functions 250
Neighborhood statistics 251

Zonal functions 252
Zonal statistics 253

Global functions 254
Distance 254
Density 263
Surface analysis 265
Surface generation (interpolation) 277

CHAPTER 8 Advanced raster analysis 285

Overview 285

Advanced raster analysis 286
Map algebra 286
Raster Calculator 287
Integer and floating-point math 289
Advanced map algebra expressions 290

Importing raster data 313

CHAPTER 9 Single-layer analysis 315

Overview 315

Summarizing attributes 315
Basic statistics 316
Summarize 318

Measurement 319
Number 319
Area 320
Length 320
Shape 321
Fragmentation 323
Distance 328
Pattern 330

Proximity analysis 334
Buffering 335
Variable buffers 338
Neighborhoods 340

Transformations 340
Feature center and centroid 341
Dissolve 343
Eliminate 343
Generalization 344
Resampling 344

CHAPTER 10 Dual-layer analysis 347

Overview 347

Overlay analysis 347
Clip 349
Intersect 353
Union 355
Merge 357

Join by location 358
Nearest feature 359
Intersecting a feature 359
Inside a polygon 360

CHAPTER 11 Spatial modeling and geoprocessing 361

Overview 361

Modeling concepts 362
Flow charts 362
Boolean model 365
Arithmetic model 367
Weighted arithmetic model 370

Evolution of user interfaces in GIS 372

ModelBuilder 374
Basics of ModelBuilder 374
Modeling accessibility -- an illustration of iterative modeling 390

Programming models using Python 403
Why use Python? 403
Basics of Python programming 405
Arguments 415
Connecting Python with ArcGIS 416
Debugging tips 428

Ten ways to improve your ArcGIS experience 429